What is traumatic brain injury and what are the mechanisms of injury? What is the Glasgow Coma Scale and how does the nurse use this in assessment?

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Develop a hand out that would be used as part of an in-service to be presented to your nursing colleagues. This handout needs to include an overview of the pathophysiology of the condition, clinical manifestations and nursing intervention which are supported by current evidence-based practice. The subject of this in-service is the presenting condition you have chosen to base your education session on.

At least 6 peer reviewed references post 2010 are required.

Case study

Amy Braden, aged 24, was in the passenger seat of a car driven by her boyfriend when they were hit from behind by a truck when the brakes failed. Amy was wearing a seat belt, but hit her head on the dashboard. When the paramedics arrived, she was unconscious with significant head and facial bleeding. Her boyfriend had minor injuries and is also being treated in the emergency room. You are in the emergency room and you take vital signs which reveal: T 37.0 degrees C., P 88, R 22 and BP 108/58. You assess neurological function by using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Her current score is 8. The assessment reveals the following: Eye Opening Response – 2 (responds to painful stimuli); Best Motor Response – 4 (flexion withdrawal from pain); Best Verbal Response – 2 (responds to stimuli by incomprehensible sounds). Further assessment shows signs of raised intracranial pressure. The doctor gives Amy a provisional diagnosis of traumatic brain injury and Amy is sent for MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain. Her parents are on their way to the hospital.

Questions to cover for the development of family and peer education documents:
What is traumatic brain injury and what are the mechanisms of injury? What is the Glasgow Coma Scale and how does the nurse use this in assessment? What other areas of neurological functioning will be assessed when Amy gains consciousness? What are the early signs/indications of a rising intra-cranial pressure? What is MRI, what is the reason for this test and what data is it expected to reveal? What immediate and long term nursing care will Amy need?
The provision of clinical patient education is a patient’s right and a health care provider’s responsibility; this includes you. Patient teaching needs to be planned and follow a logical process. This process is aimed at meeting the individual needs and requirements related to interventions. This is also true to the professional education of the registered practitioners including nurses. This assignment will provide some of the knowledge required to develop peer related education.